ISSN : 2287-8327
Background: Some researchers have attempted to evaluate the ecological function of various additional services, away from the main point of view on the timber production of Korean forests. However, basic data, evaluation models, or studies on the absorption of air pollutants related to major plant communities in Korea are very rare. Therefore, we evaluated the functional value of the forest ecosystem in Gongju-city. Plantation manual for air purification, supplied from the Ministry of Environment in Japan, was referred to process and method for assessment of air pollutant absorption. Results: Gross primary production was calculated about average 18.2 t/ha/year. It was a relatively low value in forests mixed with deciduous broad and evergreen coniferous compared to pure coniferous forest. Net primary production was the highest value in deciduous coniferous and was the lowest value in mixed forest with deciduous broad and evergreen broad. And the mean sequestration amount of each air pollutant per unit area per year assessed from gross primary production and concentration of gas was the highest with 75.81 kg/ha/year in O3 and was 16.87 and 6.04 kg/ ha/year in NO2 and SO2, respectively. In addition, total amounts of CO2 absorption and O2 production were 716,045 t CO2/year and 520,760 t O2/year in all forest vegetation in Gongju-city. Conclusions: In this study, we evaluated the absorption ability of air pollutant in 2014 on forest in Gongju-city area. Gongju-city has the broad mountain area about 70.3%, and area of deciduous broad leaves forest was established the broadest with 47.4% of genus Quercus. Pg was calculated about average 18.2 t/ha/year. The mean sequestration amount of each air pollutant per unit area per year assessed from Pg and Cgas was the highest with 75.81 kg/ha/year in O3 and were 16.87 and 6.04 kg/ha/year in NO2 and SO2, respectively. Absorption rates of O3, NO2, and SO2 were the highest in evergreen coniferous forest about 14.87 kgO3/ha/year, 3.30 kgNO2/ha/year, 1.18 kgSO2/ha/year, and the lowest were 5. 95 kgO3/ha/year, 1.32 kgNO2/ha/year, and 0.47 kgSO2/ha/year in deciduous broad forest. In conclusion, it was evaluated that Japanese model is suitable for estimating air pollutants in Japan to Korean vegetation. However, in Korea, there is a very limited basic data needed to assess the ability of forests to absorption of air pollutants. In this study, the accuracy of a calculated value is not high because the basic data of trees with similar life form are used in evaluation.
Background: Because of climate change, interest in the development of carbon pools has increased. In agricultural ecosystems, which can be more intensively managed than forests, measures to control carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and absorption levels can be applied relatively easily. However, crop residues may be released into the atmosphere by decomposition or combustion. If we can develop scientific management techniques that enable these residues to be stocked on farmland, then it would be possible to convert farmlands from carbon emission sources to carbon pools. We analyzed and investigated soil respiration (Rs) rate characteristics according to input of carbonized residue of red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), a widely grown crop in Korea, as a technique for increasing farmland carbon stock. Results: Rs rate in the carbonized biomass (CB) section was 226.7 mg CO2 m− 2 h− l, which was 18.1% lower than the 276.9 mg CO2 m− 2 h− l from the red pepper residue biomass (RB) section. The Rs rate of the control was 184.1 mg CO2 m− 2 h− l. In the following year, Rs in the CB section was 204.0 mg CO2 m− 2 h− l, which was 38.2% lower than the 330. 1 mg CO2 m− 2 h− l from the RB section; the control emitted 198.6 mg CO2 m− 2 h− l. Correlation between Rs and soil temperature ((Ts) at a depth of 5 cm) was R2 = 0.51 in the RB section, which was higher than the other experimental sections. A comparison of annual decomposition rates between RB and CB showed a large difference, 41.4 and 9.7%, respectively. The results showed that carbonization of red pepper residues reduced the rates of decomposition and Rs. Conclusions: The present study confirmed that the Rs rate can be reduced by carbonization of residue biomass and putting it in the soil and that the Rs rate and Ts (5 cm) were positively correlated. Based on the results, it was determined that approximately 1.2 t C ha− 1 were sequestered in the soil in the first year and 3.0 t C ha− 1 were stored the following year. Therefore, approximately 1.5 t C ha− 1 year− 1 are expected to be stocked in the soil, making it possible to develop farmlands into carbon pools.
Background: Ecological research often requires monitoring of a specific individual over an extended period of time. To enable non-invasive re-identification, consistent external marking is required. Treefrogs possess lateral lines for crypticity. While these patterns decrease predator detection, they also are individual specific patterns. In this study, we tested the use of lateral lines in captive and wild populations of Dryophytes japonicus as natural markers for individual identification. For the purpose of the study, the results of visual and software assisted identifications were compared. Results: In normalized laboratory conditions, a visual individual identification method resulted in a 0.00 rate of false-negative identification (RFNI) and a 0.0068 rate of false-positive identification (RFPI), whereas Wild-ID resulted in RFNI = 0.25 and RFNI = 0.00. In the wild, female and male data sets were tested. For both data sets, visual identification resulted in RFNI and RFPI of 0.00, whereas the RFNI was 1.0 and RFPI was 0.00 with Wild-ID. Wild-ID did not perform as well as visual identification methods and had low scores for matching photographs. The matching scores were significantly correlated with the continuity of the type of camera used in the field. Conclusions: We provide clear methodological guidelines for photographic identification of D. japonicus using their lateral lines. We also recommend the use of Wild-ID as a supplemental tool rather the principal identification method when analyzing large datasets.