ISSN : 2287-8327
Despite it has been mentioned that the successful restoration in landscape level was achieved in the Young-il soil erosion control project, quantitative evaluation of restored plant communities (Alnus firma as introduced species and Pinus thunbergii as native species) was hardly founded. Light availability, litter and woody debris cover, and forest structure and composition were determined for 500 m2 band-quadrat in three forest types. Abiotic factors of Q. serrata stands, as reference forest, and A. firma stands were similar but not for P. thunbergii stands. There were no significant difference on mean stem density (stems ha-1, H = 3.6, p = 0.162), and the mean basal area of each stand had marginal significance (m2 ha-1, H = 5.7, p = 0.058) among stands as total basal area was higher with the order of A. firma (21.4 m2 ha-1), P. thunbergii (19.8 m2 ha-1) and Q. serrata (16.2 m2 ha-1). Restoration of vegetation structure was more effective in fast-growing and Nfixing A. firma, as introduced species plantation. However, result of MRPP, NMS ordination and ISPAN for herbaceous layer, not for tree and shrub species composition, indicated that restoration of ground vegetation was likely influenced highly from local environment. Propagule availability from landscape context such as connectedness to natural vegetation and management practices in restored isolated stands are available explanations for restoration effects and gaps between restored plantations and secondary oak forest.
Declines in amphibian populations are occurring worldwide, and have been attributed to many factors, including anthropogenic environmental changes. One of the ramifications of such declines is abnormalities in many amphibian species. A strong association has been detected between human activities and abnormalities in amphibian populations, but studies on this association are largely focused on lentic species. In this study, it was analyzed whether the degree of local human activity was associated with the rate of abnormalities in Bombina orientalis which inhabited lotic environments. We found that the proportions of abnormalities in wild populations of B. orientalis increased, when i) the closest human land use was located within 100 m from the frogs’ habitat, and ii) the proportion of human land use within a 300-m radius was high. Our findings suggest that human activity has a negative impact on the fitness of nearby amphibian populations, and that wild populations very close to human-induced disturbance are affected.
We conducted the study on the relationship between the distribution of coastal sand dune plants and edaphic factors from the shoreline to inland in sand dune ecosystem. The application of TWINSPAN classification based on 10 species, led to the recognition of three vegetative groups (A-C), which associated with their habitats (foredune, hummuck in semistable zone and stable zone). The associations were separated along soil gradient far from the seashore. The relationships between species composition and environmental gradients were explained by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Distance from the shoreline was an important indicator to determine soil properties (pH, total ion contents, sand particle sizes, organic matters and nitrogen contents) from the seaward area to inland area and distribution pattern of coastal sand dune plants. Group A is foredune zone, characterized by Calystegia soldanella; group included typical foredune species such as Elymus mollis, Carex kobomugi, Ixeris repens, C. soldanella and Glehnia littoralis. Group B on semi-stabilized zone was characterized by Vitex rotundifolia, a perennial woody shrub. This group was associated the proportion of fine sand size (100 to 250 μm). The results on the proportion of soil particle size showed a transition in sand composition, particularly with respect to the proportion of fine sand size that occurred from the foredune ridge at 32.5 m to the Vitex rotundifolia community at 57.5 m from the shoreline. Group C on stabilized zone was characterized by Zoysia macrostachya, Lathyrus japonicus and Cynodon dactylon and were associated soil organic matter and nitrogen contents. The spatial distribution of plants in the Goraebul coastal sand dune system may result from the interactions between the plant species and environmental heterogeneity.
The object of this study was to determine long-term temporal and spatial patterns of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), suspended solids, and chlorophyll (Chl) in Chungju Reservoir, based on the dataset of 1992 – 2013, and then to develop the empirical models of nutrient-Chl for predicting the eutrophication of the reservoir. Concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were largely affected by an intensity of Asian monsoon and the longitudinal structure of riverine (Rz), transition (Tz), and lacustrine zone (Lz). This system was nitrogen-rich system and phosphorus contents in the water were relatively low, implying a P-limiting system. Regression analysis for empirical model, however, showed that Chl had a weak linear relation with TP or TN, and this was mainly associated with turbid, and nutrient-rich inflows in the system. The weak relation was associated with non-algal light attenuation coefficients (Kna), which is inversely related water residence time. Thus, values of Chl had negative functional relation (R2 = 0.25, p < 0.001) with nonalgal light attenuation. Thus, the low chlorophyll at a given TP indicated a light-limiting for phytoplankton growth and total suspended solids (TSS) was highly correlated (R2 = 0.94, p < 0.001) with non-algal light attenuation. The relations of Trophic State Index (TSI) indicated that phosphorus limitation was weak [TSI (Chl) – TSI (TP) < 0; TSI (SD) – TSI (Chl) > 0] and the effects of zooplankton grazing were also minor [TSI (Chl) – TSI (TP) > 0; TSI (SD) – TSI (Chl) > 0].
Fishways are constructed to provide longitudinal connectivity of streams or rivers where their flow has been altered by in-stream structures such as dams or weirs. Nature-like fishways have an additional function of providing fish habitats. In the study, we estimated the role of a nature-like fishway (length: 700 m, slope: 1/100) for fish habitat by using two dominant species in the Sangju Weir, Nakdong River, to calculate the optimal ecological flow rate using Physical HABitat SIMulation (PHABSIM). To identify the dominant species that used the fishway, we conducted trap monitoring from August to November 2012 at the fishway exit. The dominant species were Zacco platypus and Opsariichthys uncirostric amurensis with a relative abundance of 62.1% and 35.9%, respectively. Optimal habitat suitability indices (HSIs) for Z. platypus and O. u. amurensis were calculated as 0.6–0.8 m/s (water velocity) and 0.2–0.4 m (water depth), and 0.5–0.7 m/s (water velocity) and 0.1–0.3 m (water depth), respectively. The optimal ecological flow rates (OEFs) for Z. platypus and O. u. amurensis were 1.6 and 1.7 cubic meter per second (CMS), respectively. The results of the study can be used in a management plan to increase the habitat function of nature-like fishways in the Sangju Weir. This methodology can be utilized as an appropriate tool that can determine the habitat function of all nature-like fishways.
This study was conducted to examine litter fall, litter decomposition, and a short-term nutrient (C, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) status for one year at various levels of basal area (21.4, 27.0, 30.8, 37.0, 42.1, and 46.7 m2 ha-1) in approximately 40-yearold red pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) stands in the Hwangmaesan mountain forest in Korea. Monthly fluxes of litter fall components such as needles, broad leaves, branches, bark and total litter fall followed a similar pattern at various levels of basal area. Mean annual needle, bark and total litter fall fluxes were positively correlated with increased basal area (p<0.05), but the woody litter such as branches and cones was not correlated with basal area. Carbon and K concentrations of needle litter were negatively correlated with increased basal area, while nutrient (C, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) fluxes were positively correlated with the basal area treatments. Remaining mass, N and P concentration and remaining N and P stocks in decomposing needle litter were not affected by the basal area. However, the concentration and stocks remaining of K, Ca, and Mg from decomposing litter were positively correlated with increased basal area during the initial three months of decomposition. The results indicate that basal area has an impact on nutrient cycles through change in litter fall and litter decomposition processes; thus, the dynamics of nutrient cycles based on a stand scale could differ considerably with different levels of basal area in red pine stands.
Major objectives of the study were to analyze chemical and biological influences of the river ecosystem on the artificial weir construction at three regions of Sejong-Weir (Sj-W), Gongju-Weir (Gj-W), and Baekje-Weir (Bj-W) during 2008-2012. After the weir construction, the discharge volume increased up to 2.9 times, and biological oxygen demand (BOD) and electrical conductivity (EC) significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Also, the decrease of total phosphorus (TP) was also evident after the weir construction, but still hyper-eutrophic conditions, based on criteria by OECD (1982), were maintained. Multi-metric model of Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) showed that IBI values averaged 21.0 (range: 20-22; fair condition) in the Bwc, and 14.3 (range: 12-18; poor condition) in the Awc. The model values of IBI in Sj-W and Gj-W were significantly decreased after the weir construction. The model of Self-Organizing Map (SOM) showed that two groups (cluster I and cluster II) of Bwc and Awc were divided in the analysis based on the clustering map trained by the SOM. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was similar to the results of the SOM analysis. Taken together, this research suggests that the weir construction on the river modified the discharge volume and the physical habitat structures along with distinct changes of some chemical water quality. These physical and chemical factors influenced the ecosystem health, measured as a model value of IBI.
The main goal of this study is to develop a multi-metric fishway assessment model (Mm-FA) and evaluate the efficiency of fishway. The Mm-FA model has three major fishway components with nine metrics: structural characteristics, hydraulic/ hydrologic features, and biological attributes. The model was developed for diagnosing and assessing fishway efficiency and tested to Juksan Weir at the Yeongsan River Watershed. Structural characteristics of fishway included slope of the fishway (M1), ratios of fishway width to stream width (M2), and the proportion of orifice clogging and orifice size (M3). Hydraulic/hydrologic characteristics included depth of fishway entrance head (M4), depth of exit tail (M5), and current velocity of inner fishway (M6). Biological characteristics included fish species ratio of inner fishway to upper-lower weir (M7), fish length distribution (M8), and the proportion of migratory fish species to the total number of species (M9). Overall, the assessment of fishway efficiency showed the total score of the Mm-FA model was 25 in the Juksan Weir, indicating “good condition” by the criteria of the five-level classification system. The Mm-FA model may be used as a key tool for the assessment of fishway efficiency, especially on the 16 weirs constructed for the “Four Rivers Restoration Project” after a partial calibration of Mm-FA model.
This study was to investigate the effect of salt stress on physiological characteristics such as plant growth, photosynthesis, solutes related to osmoregulation of Beta vulgaris. A significant increase of dry weight was observed in 50 mM and 100 mM NaCl. The contents of Chl a, b and carotenoid were lower in NaCl treatments than the control. On 14 day after NaCl treatment, photosynthetic rate (PN), the transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance of CO2 (gs) were reduced by NaCl treatment. On 28 day after NaCl treatment, the significant reduction in gs and E was shown in NaCl 200 mM. However, PN and water use efficiency (WUE) in all NaCl treatments showed higher value than that of control. Total ion contents (TIC) and osmolality were higher than the control. On 14 day after treatment, the contents of proline (Pro) increased significantly in 200 mM and 300 mM NaCl concentration compared with control, whereas on 28 day in all treatments it was lower than that of the control. The contents of glycine betaine (GB) increased with the increase of NaCl concentration. The contents of Na+, Cl-, GB, osmolality and TIC increased with the increase of NaCl concentrations. These results suggested that under severe NaCl stress conditions, NaCl treatment did not induce photochemical inhibition on fluorescence in the leaves of B. vulgaris, but the reduction of chlorophyll contents was related in a decrease in leaf production. Furthermore, increased GB as well as Na+ and Cl- contents resulted in a increase of osmolality, which can help to overcome NaCl stress.
This paper reports the species of macromycetes collected in Mongolia: all the species are new to the area. Brief notes on taxonomy, ecology and distribution of the species are added. A total of 30 species of macromycetes were registered, 1 belonging to the division Ascomycota and 29 to the division Basidiomycota. It has been registered that 30 species belong to 25 genera, 17 families and occur in the flora fungus of Mongolia, until now. Specimen for 150 of samples macromycetes collected from June to August, 2015 in Tuv, Arkhangai and Huvsgul were enveloped. Macromycetes have been occured in 9 of 16 geographic regions. According to our studies 2 species in Khubsgul region, 2 species in Khangai region, 3 species in Khingan, 3 species in Dornod Mongol, 1 species in Khentei regions newly registered respectively. As a result of this work, determined 7 species (23%) of macromycetes in forest steppe and steppe regions and 23 species (77%) of them in forest region. The trophic structure for the fungal species is as follows: 2 species lignophite (7%), 4 species moss saprophyte (13%), 5 species soil saprophyte (17%), 15 species mycorrhiz (50%) of all species were respectively.
The objective of this study was to analyze chemical water quality, ecological characteristics of fish compositions, and ecosystem health before- (Bwc; 2008-2009) and after-the weir construction (Awc; 2011-2012) at Juksan Weir and Seungchon Weir of Yeongsan River watershed. Suspended solids (SS) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in Juksan Weir increased, whereas nutrients such as total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) decreased in the epilimnetic water. In Juksan and Seungchon weirs, fish species distribution analysis in the periods of Bwc and Awc showed that sensitive species were rare and tolerant species were dominant in the community. In the analysis of trophic guild, relative abundance of carnivore species are increased to 22% and 12%, respectively, after the constructions of Seungchon Weir and Juksan Weir. Mann- Whitney U-tests of nonparametric statistical analysis indicated that omnivore and carnivore species had significant differences (p < 0.05) between the Bwc and Awc. The massive population growth of an exotic species, Micropterus salmoides, was evident in Seungchon Weir to influence on the structures of fish communities. The model values of mean Index of Biological Integrity (IBI), based on fish assemblages, were < 15, which indicates "poor” condition in the river health, and the significant difference of IBI values was not found between the Bwc and Awc.
In recent years, many research revealed plant-insect interactions are becoming unstable because of climate change, human activities and grazing effect. In this work, it is aimed to disclose that how climate of two different years is influencing on insect community at certain locality in Mongolia. The data on the insect community are collected, covering full flowering season from June to August in 2014 and 2015. In order to include all species of insects in Udleg Station, data was collected in three different sites. One of them was around edge of forest, another one was in ungrazed area or inside the fence that has been kept for more than 9 years and last one was in grazed area. Weather was a perceptible difference during two year’s study. This climate differences significantly influenced on the insect community. In 2014, overall 305 insect species were recorded, in which 124 insect species in order of Diptera, 44 in Lepidoptera, 33 in Coleoptera, 31 in Hemiptera, and 73 in Hymenoptera were determined. But in 2015, these number of species noticeably decreased, and total 150 insect species were recorded, in which 58 in Diptera, 26 in Lepidoptera, 13 in Coleoptera, 12 in Hemiptera, and 41 in Hymenoptera were determined.
Mongolia has one of the strongest climate warming signals on Earth, and over 40% of the human population depends directly or indirectly on pastoral livestock production for their livelihoods. Thus, climate-driven changes in rangeland production will likely have a major effect on pastoral livelihoods (Fernandez-Gimenez et al. 2015). The loss of species dependent mostly on rainfall has resulted in adverse changes in the botanical composition of the steppes (Gunin et al. 1999). Summer season in 2015 was completely dry until middle of July and, had not enough vegetation cover as last 15 years. The purpose of this study is to check plant community dynamics in Mongolia in relation to climate change in 2014 and 2015. The study sites were selected in mountain-steppe habitat in central Mongolia. In the 2014, there have been registered 81 plant species of 56 genera of 25 families on the investigated sites and, occurred 57 plant species of 44 genera of 21 families in the 2015. It is concluded that the abundance and richness of plants are directly connected to heavily affect by the climatic factor, i.e. amount of precipitation during growing season. As a same like result of climate change, in Mongolian land is going become desertification, and each spring, soil particles from Mongolia are swept up by a cold air mass into the atmosphere and blasts into south east China, Korea and Japan. The Koreans call this phenomenon the “Fifth season” or “Yellow sand”, and the Chinese call it “Yellow dragon”.